The animal population is exploding. Each year millions of unwanted pets are
born and disposed of. The primary causes of pet euthanasia are the failure
by owners to have their pets spayed or neutered and animals that are abandoned
or relinquished to shelters because of obedience problems. This is tragic and
reprehensible ... but also preventable.
The procedure of removing the reproductive organs of either a male or a female
animal is called neutering. Specifically, the procedure for females is call
spaying. The procedure for males is called castration or altering, but is also
loosely called neutering.
The obvious reason spaying and neutering is so critical is to prevent unwanted,
accidental pregnancies. There are many more benefits, though, that are good for
the pet as well as the owner.
This preventive surgery can be performed as early as 2 to 4 months of age.
Recent scientific research shows evidence that a younger puppy or kitten does
better with the anesthesia and the surgical process. Talk to your veterinarian
about when your particular pet should be spayed. Many veterinarians still
choose to perform this routine procedure at about 5 to 6 months of age.
For their own sakes, all female dogs or cats should be spayed unless they are
going be professionally bred or shown. It does not matter if she will ever be
allowed outdoors unsupervised, the physical benefits of an early spaying
operation are so great that there are no valid reasons not to have it performed.
In addition, you avoid behavioral problems that are related to sexual drive in
an unspayed female pet.
Physical Benefits of an Early Spay
It is simply not reasonable that a female puppy should be allowed to have one
heat or one litter before she's spayed. There are no benefits to be gained from
waiting and many to be gained by an early spaying operation.
A pet in heat will bleed and consequently spot the carpet and furniture. Owners
who have indoor pets have to cover the furniture to avoid this spotting. Carpet
will also need to be neutralized to remove the smell and the stain. Although
there are little pads that can be worn with a strap, most pets find them
uncomfortable and try to take them off.
A female pet that is spayed before her first heat has a greatly reduced risk of
developing ovarian, uterine or breast cancer, the second most common malignancy
in pets. In addition, she will never develop pyometra (an infection of the
uterus). Pyometra can become seriously life-threatening and require an emergency
spay operation. These infections very commonly occur in older, unspayed females.
Of course, an early spay operation also prevents an unplanned, unwanted pregnancy.
If your unspayed female puppy does accidentally become pregnant, it can be
potentially damaging to her health, since she is very young. A six-month-old puppy
is in no way suited for motherhood.
As to the argument that spayed female pets always get fat, this is not necessarily
the case. It is true that spayed pets can be more prone to obesity, but that's
because as a female puppy nears physical maturity she becomes somewhat less
physically active and requires fewer calories for energy. Physical maturity often
follows shortly behind a spaying operation. Therefore, the spaying is often blamed
if a puppy begins to put on weight. If you do not overfeed your pet and give her
plenty of daily exercise, she will not gain too much weight. If you don't, she'll
get fat, whether or not she's been spayed.
Behavior Benefits of an Early Spay
During the stage in the heat cycle when a female is receptive toward males, she may
attempt to escape from the house. She may also indulge in territorial urine marking,
especially if there are other pets (male or female) in the household or immediate
An unspayed female may also suffer from a disorder known as "false pregnancy" which
mimics all of the physical and behavioral stages of pregnancy, even though there are
no fertilized eggs. It's especial common in pets that are very dependent on their
owners, and can occur even when no mating has taken place. Some females go through
a false pregnancy every time they come into heat.
A very troublesome side effect of having an unspayed female is the necessity of
keeping her away from unwelcome Romeos and keeping them away from her. Males will
appear on your doorstep, hang around your yard and fight one another. In addition to
these problems, female cats and even some dogs may "cry." You think your pet is in
pain and take it to the vet only to find out it is in heat and looking for a mate.
At around six or seven months of age, your male will become sexually mature. The
operation is best performed when the animal is young, although it can be done at any
age in a pet's life. As with spaying, this procedure is now considered preventive
Neutering does not change the male's masculine appearance. He will still acquire
his secondary sex characteristics, regardless of his age when the procedure is done.
Castration doesn't affect hunting ability or watchdog behavior. He most likely will
be less aggressive in some areas, especially toward other males. As with altered
females, male pets will not get fat if given a good, balanced diet and enough exercise.
Physical Benefits of an Early Neuter
Unaltered males are subject to a number of hormone-related medical problems as they
age. They may develop prostate, perianal and testicular tumors and cancers. Neutering
greatly reduces the risk of these medical problems.
Behavior Benefits of an Early Neuter
Neutering is particularly effective as a preventive measure against a number of common
behavioral problems. One aspect of male canine behavior is aggression toward other
males. As a male reaches full physical and sexual maturity, he becomes more and more
protective of what he considers "his" territory. His definition of "his" area tends to
change, and the boundaries enlarge, until sometimes an entire square block or country
mile falls within his territory.
Often, owners are not aware of this until a tragedy occurs and their male or another
male is severely hurt or even killed. "But he's always so gentle" is a common cry of
an upset owner in these circumstances. And he is -- until another male invades
property that he considers his own. Then his male territorial instinct overrides any
social behavior he may have learned and he defends his turf, sometimes to the death.
Along with this instinct comes roaming behavior. A sexually active male must patrol
the boundaries of his property and constantly widen them. In addition, he's always
on the lookout for receptive females and, if there is a female in heat within many
miles, he'll find her. Along with this comes the potential to be hit by a car or
otherwise injured, or become lost. Often, a male hangs around the area for days on
end, apparently forgetting that he even has a home. Terrible fights can occur when
several males pursue a female in heat, even if she is confined indoors, and the
resulting veterinarian bills may be staggering. Research shows us that of all the
positive behavior changes that are a result of neutering, roaming shows the
greatest degree of change.
An uncastrated male may indulge in territorial urine marking -- urinating on every
upright surface he can find. This is usually related either to a female coming into
heat somewhere within his range or another male moving into the neighborhood. You
may not be aware of either occurrence, but you will soon know it when your
housetrained pet has suddenly "broken training" and is marking up your house. In
the absence of other male animals, males may also take out their aggressive
territorial protection on humans. Overprotectiveness of family members may manifest
itself by growling or nipping at visitors in your home.
All of these behaviors can usually be corrected by a combination of neutering and
training, but it's difficult to break a habit that has become ingrained.
Neutering makes life more pleasant because it removes some of the behavioral traits
with which people find it difficult to live -- traits that may land the pet in a
The operation itself is certainly not cruel, but a fairly simple and routine procedure
that actually helps the pet. When done on a young animal, it entails, at most, one or
two days of discomfort.
Owners will be given instructions about withholding food and water to the pet prior to
the surgery. Follow these directions carefully.
Most veterinarians will give a thorough physical prior to the anesthesia. It often
includes a blood test and urinalysis. These tests are necessary to make sure there
aren't underlying medical problems such as kidney or liver disease, diabetes or
chronic infection that would put the patient at greater risk during surgery.
For females, the ovaries and uterus will be removed, thus, eliminating the production
of eggs. For males, the testes will be removed, thus, eliminating the source of sperm.
After the operation, the animal will continue to be monitored. Some veterinarians
choose to keep the animal overnight for observation, but most animals that have surgery
in the morning can go home late in the afternoon to rest and recuperate.
Again, there will be specific instructions given to the owner about the care of the pet
for the next several days. Follow these directions carefully and your pet will recover
quickly and completely in a short while.
To summarize, spaying and neutering is good for everyone:
It's good for your pet. It reduces the risk of certain reproductive cancers and diseases
for both males and females. Spayed or neutered pets also generally live longer. For
females, it eliminates the heat cycle and therefore, the nervousness, blood and unwelcome
males. For males, it stops the mating desire, reduces mounting and the tendency to roam.
It's good for you. Usually less expensive to license, a discount is given if your pet
is spayed or neutered. It reduces the risk of unwanted litters. There will be no more
problems with blood stains, males breaking into your yard, pets running away in search
of a mate, and the job of taking care of and finding homes for an unwanted litter. Your
pet will be happier and so will you.
It's good for the community. Homeless pets often create serious problems. They destroy
property, spread disease and cost a lot of money to control. It's an agonizing job to
euthanize animals because of irresponsible breeding.
Reasons People do not Spay or Neuter Their Pet
"It would be too cruel to do that to my pet!"
Your pet does not have the ability to hold a grudge against you because you made this
decision. If your pet could talk, he or she would thank you for it!
"I'm afraid of putting my pet under. Won't it be painful?"
Although neutering and spaying is a surgical procedure that does require general
anesthesia, the pet feels nothing during the procedure and the risks are minimal.
Certainly the benefits far outweigh the risks. There is only a slight discomfort
and the pet will usually be back on their feet with normal activities within 24
to 72 hours.
"I don't have enough money for this procedure."
You can't afford not to do it. Most communities have humane shelters and low-cost
spay/neuter clinics that offer affordable services. Contact your veterinarian, your
local shelter, or the PETsMART store nearest you. It can be much more costly to you
if you have a pregnant female with pups to take care of, or if you have to split the
veterinarian bills with your neighbor because your male got their female pregnant.
"I want to breed my pet ... it's a purebred."
Purebred breeding is very complicated. There are some things you should ask yourself
before you do this. Do you have a five-generation pedigree for the animal? Is there
a minimum of eight titles (AKC/UKC: Champions, Obedience CD, CDX, etc.) in the last
three generations? Does the animal have a stable temperament? Does the animal fit
the breed standard? Are the animal and prospective mate healthy? Is the animal
certified free of genetic diseases? Do you have the time it takes to breed? A good
breeder will be careful about the animals they breed and will offer to take a animal
back if it does not work out.
"I can make some extra money selling the puppies."
Breeding dogs and cats isn't always a money making experience. There are the
veterinary bills, shots, food, and advertising costs. There is also the time spent
caring for the puppies and kittens and showing them to prospective owners. Don't forget
the temptation to keep "just one" that often happens with the first litter. What if the
pregnancy puts the mother in medical danger that causes her to suffer or even die
-- can you put a price on the loss of a pet? Also, for every heat cycle a female goes
through, her odds of having medical problems later multiplies by ten. By the time the
puppies are sold, has a significant amount of money really been made?
"My male dog will be kept indoors away from any females."
Male pets will smell females in heat and many have been known to escape their homes to
reach the female.
"I want my male dog to be a guard dog and I need to keep him aggressive."
Most pets will be more reliable and responsible after neutering and are often easier to
train because of stabilized hormones. What makes a male dog a good guard dog is training,
"My kids need to learn about the birds and the bees -- I want them to see the birth process."
Children can experience the birthing process in other ways rather than at the expense of the